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Microphone Pickup Patterns: Understanding & Using Directionality

Just like there are types of microphones, there are varying microphone pickup patterns in each type. Some mic's even let you change this polar pattern with a switch on the back. To make it even worse, you'll hear this property called all types of names including this third term in this article already: directionality. So what's the deal? Why do these options exist and what purpose do they serve? We'll clear up all of the confusion for you right now.